(2007). corals. (1985). Reef-scale trends in Florida Acropora spp. Figure 4. the nearshore aquatic habitats near a coast, or shoreline. Sisson, .. June 1973. REEF-BUILDINGCORAL, ACROPORA CERVICORNIS: SELF-RECOGNITIONANALYSIS AND DEMOGRAPHIC INTERPRETATION JOSEPH E. NEIGEL AND JOHN C. AVISE Department of Molecular and Population Genetics, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, 30602 Received December 8, 1981. These two patches of A. cervicornis were not spared from this outbreak, but were affected on different time scales. (1977). Occurrences were not counted for Damselfish predation. This relatively mild year, with lowest maximum mean water temperatures, average wind speeds, and above average rainfall, resulted in the lowest prevalence of both disease and fireworm predation at both patches. the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Disturbances during the study disrupted the demography of A. cervicornis. Fed. A., Nedimyer, K., and Burkepile, D. E. (2016). Mar. Oecologia 46, 322–329. In particular, -Acropora cervicornis- is one of the primary reef building corals in the Caribbean (Birkeland 1997). Occurrences were not counted for Damselfish predation. PeerJ 4:e2473. Pub 8 Fairleigh Dickenson University), 145–153. Staghorn coral can form dense groups called thickets in very shallow water. Missing data for Scooter from 2014 to 2016 are due to faulty loggers. Without time for recovery and growth between these major events, this species will not recover naturally. Endangered Species Act as a Conservation Strategy. Coral Reefs 12, 223–233. Occurrences of each condition were counted on colonies (dark bars) and masses (light bars). The habitat diversity and ecological benefits provided by the structure of A. cervicornis colonies are virtually irreplaceable within the natural marine community. Ser. BCA however, had a slight reprieve from disease and a small increase in percent cover, until Hurricane Matthew passed by in October 2016, further reducing PCL at both sites. Therefore, we suggest specific management actions such as the management of predator populations; this may not only lead to improved growth of colonies by reducing the number of damaged growth ends, but could also lead to a reduction in disease due to their abilities to be vectors of pathogens. Den här artikeln har skapats av Lsjbot, ett program (en robot) för automatisk redigering. corals off Belize using sub-meter satellite imagery classification. Goergen’s Ph.D. committee for their thoughtful comments and critiques during project planning and dissertation reviews. Mar. Chronic and catastrophic natural mortality of three comon Caribbean reef corals. PeerJ 2:e541. Survival of hurricane-generated coral fragments and a disturbance model of reef calcification/growth rates. This increased duration of warmer waters preceded one of the highest prevalence of disease (70–94% of plots) and predation (80–90% of plots) recorded for this study, and prevalence remained high for the next two monitoring events, leading to a major decrease in live tissue at Scooter (-121 m2). “Coral Mortality in reefs: a problem for science and management,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Coral Reef Symposium, Miami, FL, 617–623. They also require a hard surface for which the coral polyps can settle. Impact Factor 3.661 | CiteScore 4.4More on impact ›, Coral Reefs in the Anthropocene doi: 10.7717/peerj.4433. Error bars indicate ± 1 SE. doi: 10.7717/peerj.541, Miller, M. W, Marmet, C., Cameron, C., and Williams, D. (2014b). Demographic Monitoring Protocols for Threatened Caribbean Acropora spp. 113712).Mature gametes are shed into the coelenteron and spawned through the mouth. 32, 639–643. At night, the tiny fingerlike tentacles of the corals emerge. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2711, Miller, M. W., Kerr, K., and Williams, D. E. (2016b). The variability was similar to what Miller et al. (2016a). doi: 10.7717/peerj.1239, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, Bright, A. J., Rogers, C. S., Brandt, M. E., Muller, E., and Smith, T. B. Propagation through fragmentation has the potential to support the existence of this species in low levels but gains do not keep up with the mortality observed. This material is based upon work supported by the Individual plot canopy height was used to calculate a mean canopy height per patch for each event. In addition, to determine differences in mean abundance and absolute change in abundance between seasons, Kruskal–Wallis test by ranks followed multiple comparisons two-tailed post hoc tests were used. Total fragments counted per monitoring event ranged from 15 to 359 at BCA (plot average = 6.3 ± 0.31 fragments) and 80 to 1,313 at Scooter (17.6 ± 0.73 fragments). Damselfish predation significantly increased during the study for Scooter (glm, p < 0.05). Predation by fireworms and snails varied radically during the study by years, seasons, and sites. Across the 8 years of the study, abundance and health of A. cervicornis were surveyed within 27 plots at BCA and 31 plots at Scooter, five plots at BCA never had A. cervicornis so were not included in the analysis. Extreme changes in cover may not indicate a total loss of A. cervicornis tissue at the site. The center pin was not located for two plots at Scooter following the SM15 and F15 events because of A. cervicornis overgrowth and were not included following these events. The marine fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a winter reservoir and spring-summer vector for the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Since 1979, WBD has decimated 95% of regional Acropora populations, resulting in the listing of both Acropora cervicornis (Lamarck, 1816), staghorn coral and Acropora palmata (Lamarck, 1816), elkhorn coral as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 3. Exposed skeleton from fragmentation could increase disease susceptibility (Knowlton et al., 1981). These rates were not enough to replace the loss of tissue caused by disturbance events. Aronson, R. B., Bruckner, A. W., Moore, J., Precht, W. F., and Weil, E. (2008). Staghorn corals use their nematocysts which are located on their tentacles for eating and gaining food. Taxon Information Overall mean prevalence of disease was higher on masses 36 ± 2.5 and 41 ± 1.9% than on colonies 8 ± 0.8 and 7 ± 0.5% for BCA (X2 = 37.525, p < 0.001) and Scooter (X2 = 88.801, p < 0.001), respectively. Percent cover of living decreased for both patches during the study, although only BCA had a significant, decreasing linear trend [r2 = 0.5013, F(3,20) = 6.702, p < 0.001; Scooter: r2 = 0.07924, F(3,20) = 0.5738, p > 0.05; Figure 1). Counts of masses increased at Scooter from 2008 to 2010 and then remained stable. (2016). The most masses counted during one monitoring event were at Scooter with 119 masses during SM11. Density dependence drives habitat production and survivorship of Acropora cervicornis used for restoration on a Caribbean coral reef. Articles. Number of days between monitoring events in which the wind speed was greater than the average wind speed (12.78 kts) observed in southeast Florida for the six tropical storms occurring during the study. These monitoring periods will be referenced by the season followed by the last two digits of the year throughout the rest of this paper (e.g., SM09 is Summer 2009). Fragmentation in Montipora ramosa: the genet and ramet concept applied to a reef coral. However, increases in cover in these plots is very minimal (less than 5%) and is in no way equivalent to what was lost in the other plots. The trends in mean abundance of fragments, colonies, and masses were analyzed using a Poisson regression for both between monitoring events and years. Zooxanthellate (Ref. Mar. The frequency of disturbance events varied between years; however, during years of few or no disturbances such as 2013, both patches exhibited signs of recovery with increased PCL. Differences were found between the annual means of fragment counts, with 2010, 2015, and 2016 as high years at Scooter and 2012 and 2016 at BCA. The maximum monthly mean ranged between 29.2 and 30.8°C. However, there is evidence that propagation is still occurring through colony fragmentation and dislodgement. Williams, D. E., and Miller, M. W. (2006). demographic monitoring protocol (Williams et al., 2006). Petrol. The Great Barrier Reef: The World's Wild Places/Time-Life Books. Boxes represent the 25 and 75% quartiles with whiskers extending 1.5 ∗ interquartile range, the line represents the median, and dots are considered outliers. Spec. Population enhancement by way of outplanting colonies in low density aggregations from nurseries could have a positive effect on this species’ long-term sustainability while larger environmental issues are tackled (Miller et al., 2016b; Goergen and Gilliam, 2018; Hughes et al., 2018). Percent cover was estimated for each plot during each event and was used to calculate mean cover by patch. Snail predation was not observed at every monitoring event and increased significantly in prevalence toward the end of the study (2013–2016) at Scooter (glm, p < 0.01). Case study of natural population collapse: post-hurricane predation on Jamaican Staghorn coral. Some of these gametes are drawn into other polyps that are nearby; the eggs that are produced there are then fertilized and larva develop and float away to produce new polyps. "Acropora cervicornis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Carbon is passed by the alga to the coral increasing its energy, and the food caught by the coral may supply nitrogen and phosphorus for both organisms (Encarta 1997). Mar. Since this dramatic decline, recovery has been limited with few known high cover populations remaining throughout the species’ range (Vargas-Ángel et al., 2003; Keck et al., 2005; Grober-Dunsmore et al., 2006; Lirman et al., 2010; Walker et al., 2012; Busch et al., 2016). 2019. 32, 608–623. Some of the species that live in the corals have already yeilded compounds active against inflammations, asthma, leukemia, tumors, heart disease, fungal and bacteria infections, and even viruses including HIV (Chadwick 1999). Temporal variability was observed in mean percent live cover at both patches and showed an overall loss of tissue. Staghorn corals have nematocysts, which are stinging cells that are located on their tentacles. Substantial resources are currently being dedicated to coral gardening and the subsequent outplanting of asexually reproduced colonies of Acropora, activities that provide abundant biomass … Dollar, S., and Tribble, G. (1993). In fact, the two largest fragmentation events were subsequently followed by an increase in disease prevalence. Background. Species composition and zonation. Quantifying exceptionally large populations of Acropora spp. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. Therefore, 2009–2016 were downloaded from the National Data Buoy Center station PVGF1-Port Everglades Channel, FL3. Aquat. The planula that survive predators while floating through the water settle on a suitable hard surface in warm water and attach themselves by spreading out into a disk (Sisson 1973). These data indicate how wide-spread each condition was at each patch. Your Acropora Cervicornis stock images are ready. The implication of these results is that given the current rates of growth, recruitment, and storm frequency, natural species recovery is unlikely unless large scale issues like climate change and ocean warming, which affect the intensity and frequency of disease and predation, are addressed. Live tissue at BCA at this time also decreased but only slightly (-20 m2), and the prevalence of disease and predation were elevated but lower than Scooter. Protect. at http://www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/9901/fngm/index.html. As oceans continue to warm (Hughes et al., 2018), warm water driven factors such as bleaching, disease, and predation will increase in frequency and likely intensity. Prevalence of white disease was also calculated per plot by dividing the number of colonies or masses with disease by the total number of colonies or masses in each plot. 86439).In Belize, it was also found in a submarine cave at a depth of 10 m (Ref. Plots in which A. cervicornis were never recorded during the duration of the study were not included in the analysis (n = 5 for BCA). Daily mean water temperature at BCA—blue and Scooter—red. Background The architecturally important coral species Acropora cervicornis and A. palmata were historically common in the Caribbean, but have declined precipitously since the early 1980s. The presence of disease increased at times when water temperatures were warmer and following disturbance events. Front. Ecol. Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Figure 5. 516, 187–194. Ser. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Our data indicate that the diseases affecting A. cervicornis, while continuously observed in background levels, may also be exacerbated by increased water temperatures and disturbance events. Moreover, fireworms have been a proven vector of a bleaching pathogen (Sussman et al., 2003), which is of great concern because colonies with predation lesions may be more likely to become diseased (Miller et al., 2014b) and both fireworms and snails have been associated with increased disease prevalence (Knowlton et al., 1990; Miller et al., 2014b; Bright et al., 2016). Sci. PCL within individual plots at BCA ranged from 0 to 70%, with an overall study mean of 8.6 ± 0.38% (±SE). Sci. Williams, D. E., Miller, M. W., and Kramer, K. L. (2006). Population Densities and Feeding Behavior of the Amphinomid polychaete, Hermodice carunculata, in Acropora cervicornis Assemblages in Southeastern Florida. A total of 4,692 colonies were counted at BCA (density of 0.18 ± 0.01 col/m2) and 11,894 at Scooter (0.40 ± 0.01 col/m2) across the entire project. Prevalence of disease may have been lower at BCA simply due to the sparseness of tissue remaining. Tropical storm force winds, identified by the predicted area of the wind swath published by NOAA5, impacted southeast Florida during six named storm events (Table 1). doi: 10.7717/peerj.2523, Miller, M. W., Lohr, K. E., Cameron, C. M., Williams, D. E., and Peters, E. C. (2014a). Oceanography 20, 172–195. The ecology of Jamaican coral reefs I. Table 2. PCL was greater at Scooter with an overall mean of 16.0 ± 0.48% but had a similar range from 0 to 75%. Contribut. Acropora cervicornis house many creatures, some of which may be useful to the medical research field. Prevalence, consequences, and mitigation of fireworm predation on endangered staghorn coral. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! Aronson, R. B., and Precht, W. F. (2001). February 15,2000 They are arborescent, composed of cylindrical branches which subdivide infrequently. Boxes represent the 25 and 75% quartiles with whiskers extending 1.5 ∗ interquartile range, the line represents the median, and dots are considered outliers. Detecting sedimentation impacts to coral reefs resulting from dredging the Port of Miami. Not only do the presence of disease and predation have a spatial and temporal component, they were also variable across different life history stages, affecting masses more than colonies. For disease, dotted and dashed lines represent prevalence on colonies and masses, respectively. doi: 10.1126/science.285.5433.1505, Harvell, D., Jordán-Dahlgren, E., Merkel, S., Rosenberg, E., Raymundo, L., Smith, G., et al. The prevalence of disease for this study ranged from 0 to 37% on colonies (mean approximately 7%) which was similar to previous reports across the species’ range (Lirman et al., 2010; Miller et al., 2014a; Goergen et al., unpublished). Colors represent seasonal changes from Fall to Winter—blue, Winter to Summer—yellow, and Summer to Fall—red, the green bar represents change in cover between the SM12 and the TSI12 monitoring events. Prevalence of fireworm predation was significantly higher in 2015 at both BCA and Scooter (Tukey, p < 0.001) and significantly lower in 2013 at Scooter (Tukey, p < 0.001). 3:77. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00077. When present, it was recorded as the primary cause of mortality in 30 ± 5 and 41 ± 4% plots on average for BCA and Scooter, respectively. Reg. Recurrent storm disturbance and recovery: a long-term study of coral communities in Hawaii. A century of natural change in coral distribution at the dry tortugas: a comparison of reef maps from 1881-1976. It occurs in back reef and fore reef environments from 0 to 30 m (0 to 98 ft) depth. Acropora cervicornis grows into cylindrical branches with a large corallite at the tip of each branch. Broader (1) Acropora. Vienna: R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Download all free or royalty-free photos and vectors. Gladfelter, W. (1982). However, on masses (what others may consider large colonies, thickets, or patches) prevalence was higher, with a range of 2–84% (mean 38%), than previously reported (Vargas-Ángel et al., 2003; Ladd et al., 2016; Goergen and Gilliam, 2018). Atlantic Acropora status review document. Unexpectedly high cover of Acropora cervicornis on offshore reefs in Roatán (Honduras). The staghorn coral, -A. cervicornis-, grows into "antler-like branches" so the polyps are raised above the sand (McGregor 1974). Staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis (Lamarck, 1816) Description: Colonies loosely branching, all branches circular in cross section. The aim of this study was to document the impacts of environmental (tropical storms, increased wind) and biological (disease and predation) threats on A. cervicornis to further understand its population dynamics and potential for recovery. Natural population recovery of Acropora palmata, A. cervicornis and their hybrid, Acropora prolifera, have fluctuated significantly after their Caribbean-wide, disease-induced mass mortality in the early 1980s. New York: Chapman and Hall. This may be even more prudent in high density areas where disease is more prevalent, because the etiology of these diseases is still unknown, and they could also be spreading by water movement or fish, by abating disease where it is most abundant would benefit the rest of the marine community. Coral. Furthermore, under modern day reef condition and the frequent occurrences of storms and elevated winds, paired with seasonal and sometimes chronic disease and chronic predation, the ability for a population to grow into these large patches may be difficult. Occurrences of each condition were counted on colonies (dark bars) and masses (light bars). Acropora cervicornis is a fragile, vulnerable, and dynamic species that has been known to change in abundance and/or cover quickly (e.g., weeks to years) in response to disease outbreaks, tropical disturbances, or climatic events (Shinn, 1976; Antonius, 1977; Davis, 1982; Knowlton et al., 1990; Schopmeyer et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2014a) and was frequently found lining the fore reef of many Caribbean, Florida, and Gulf of Mexico coral reefs. Branches can be over 1 m long and are slender, and colonies are usually loosely packed or ‘open’. Prevalence is indicated by the lines on each graph; solid lines represent prevalence of plots with condition. It is also likely that fireworms and snails may be acting as vectors or reservoirs for pathogens as there is a relationship between the prevalence of disease and predation at both sites (Williams and Miller, 2005; Gignoux-Wolfsohn et al., 2012; Miller et al., 2014b; Bright et al., 2015). PeerJ 3:e1239. Staghorn corals are also of vital importance to the stabilization of coastlines, as fish habitats, and for the protection of our biodiversity (Nemoto 1992). Meteorological data were obtained from multiple online resources to better describe the conditions during tropical disturbances and aiding in identifying other causal events. Sci. They are constantly changing shape as they swim/drift (Sisson 1973). However, BCA had similar mean occurrence counts on colonies (1–8 tips) as Scooter, but much fewer on masses (2–14 tips). The occurrence of damselfish predation and bleaching were not recorded because of the difficulty in defining and enumerating individual gardens and areas of bleaching. Mar. Gilmore, M. D., and Hall, E. R. (1976). This corallite is called the axial corallite and is a key feature which distinguished Acropora from other corals. doi: 10.5343/bms.2015.1038, Bythell, J. C., Gladfelter, E. H., and Bythell, M. (1993). Precht, W. F., Gintert, B. E., Robbart, M. L., Fura, R., and van Woesik, R. (2016). Trends in mean percent cover of living (PCL) A. cervicornis were analyzed using Time Series Analyses followed by decomposing the components and analyzing the decomposed trend component with a linear regression (R Core Team, 2017). 23, 399–464. They have a mouth at the upper end, which is the wider end with cilia like hairs all over them that are constantly beating and help support them to the surface. Coral disease, environmental drivers, and the balance between coral and microbial associates. The largest increases were observed from the winter to summer monitoring events where average increases in percent cover per plot were 1.4 and 1.9% at BCA and Scooter, respectively (Figure 2, yellow bars). To fully understand the population dynamics of this threatened species and to further inform restoration and conservation efforts, these data need to be evaluated over the long-term. 321, 123–132. These microscopic plants live inside the bodies of all reef-building polyps aiding their growth in an uncertain way. Condition characteristics and a species census were completed in all plots. Rep. 6:31374. doi: 10.1038/srep31374. Rainfall data were obtained from the South Florida Water Management Districts Hollywood Station (2008–Oct 2014) and S36-RR Station (Nov. 2014–20164). However, these gains were not enough to outweigh the total losses, and by area BCA experienced a net loss of 144 m2 of living A. cervicornis and Scooter 173 m2. National Marine Fisheries Service (2006). Life history, growth habitats and constructional roles of Acropora cervicornis in the patch reef environment. master’s thesis, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL. Life and Death of Coral Reefs. Disease prevalence and snail predation associated with swell-generated damage on the threatened coral, Acropora palmata (Lamarck). Proceedings of the Caribbean Acropora workshop: Potential Application of the U.S. And on masses degree of Doctorate of Philosophy at Nova Southeastern University Halmos college natural... In a submarine cave at a depth of 10 m ( Ref consumed area is unlikely (,! Two high-density A. cervicornis is greatly affected by extreme environmental conditions, disease, environmental drivers, the! The second largest ocean in the Great Barrier reef of Australia ( McGregor 1974 ) on. Threatened species: final listing determinations for elkhorn coral and staghorn coral can live in! 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